Israhel van Meckenem the Younger (German, 1440/45–1503) was a painter and engraver who lived and worked in Bocholt. A prolific copyist with great business acumen, Meckenem voraciously pirated works of his better-known contemporaries such as Dürer and Martin Schongauer. He recognized the commercial value of prints as commodities and developed diverse subjects to appeal to different audiences. Often mischaracterized as an uninspired imitator, Meckenem was in fact an innovative entrepreneur who exploited the engraved medium’s full market potential. 


Marcantonio Raimondi (Italian, c. 1480–1534) was a Bolognese engraver who earned recognition for his work as a reproductive printmaker, particularly of the designs of Dürer and Raphael, among others. A meticulous imitator, Raimondi benefited from both southern stylistic models and northern printmaking techniques. Attracting numerous pupils, his large workshop completed more than 300 compositions. This extensive production not only guaranteed Raimondi’s financial success but also contributed to his wide influence in early modern Italy and the dissemination of a “High Renaissance” style throughout Europe. 


Hieronymus Hopfer (German, c. 1500–1550/63) was a printmaker active in Augsburg and Nuremburg from around 1520. He learned etching from his father, Daniel, who was the first printmaker to utilize the medium, a technique that originated from metal decoration. Working mostly from German and Italian woodcuts and engravings, including reproductive prints by Raimondi, Hopfer executed a wide variety of etchings—religious and genre subjects, portraits and allegories—many after Dürer’s designs.


Jan Wierix (Netherlandish, 1548–1618) was a master engraver active in Antwerp and Brussels. As a novice, Wierix reproduced many designs by Dürer and other artists of note. His engravings were popular with publishers and collectors, and some were used as propaganda during the Counter-Reformation. Throughout his career, Wierix continued his work as a copyist but later developed his own original, printed compositions. 


Parker Ito (b. 1986) is a multimedia and digital artist known for his manipulations of found imagery and web-based systems of communication while producing artistic output at a high speed. His works include paintings, sculptures, ceramics, videos, and digitally rendered images. Ito’s complex and continuously expanding Dürer-inspired project has stretched over many years and includes print portfolios, artist books, and large-scale paintings based on Dürer’s most famous works. A fourth-generation Japanese-American, Ito lives and works in Los Angeles.