About the Artists


With its museums and galleries, Paris, the capital of the art world in the late nineteenth century, offered a rich education to those who visited briefly or made it their permanent home. Many women came from considerable distances to study art in Paris. There, they could enroll in private art schools, such as the Académie Julian or Académie Colarossi, take private lessons with an established painter, rent studios with other female artists, and, along the way, develop supportive friendships.
 
In order to exhibit their work, many women submitted their paintings to the official Salon, an annual exhibition of new works by living painters, sculptors, and architects, sponsored by the government, but entry was very limited. Others participated in the Impressionist Exhibitions, held between 1874 and 1886, which were mounted as an alternative to the traditional and more conservative Salon. Additional opportunities for exhibiting and selling their work came with a series of Expositions Universelles (World’s Fairs) held in 1855, 1867, 1878, 1889, and 1900, each of which hosted art exhibitions in which women could participate.
 
Click on a photograph to learn more about each artist’s experience in Paris and beyond.


Abbema.jpg
Louise Abbéma
French, 1858–1927
Ancher.jpg
Anna Ancher
Danish, 1859–1935
Backer.jpg
Harriet Backer
Norwegian, 1845–1932

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Marie Bashkirtseff
Ukrainian, 1858–1884

Beaury-Saurel-(1).jpg
Amélie Beaury-Saurel
French, 1848–1924

Beaux-(1).jpg
Cecilia Beaux
American, 1855–1942

Bonheur-(1).jpg
Rosa Bonheur
French, 1822–1899

Bouguereau-(1).jpgElizabeth Gardner Bouguereau
American, 1837–1922

Bracquemond-(1).jpgMarie Bracquemond
French, 1840–1916

Breslau.jpgLouise Breslau
Swiss, 1856–1927

Butler.jpg
Lady Elizabeth Butler
British, 1846–1933

Carlson-Bredberg.jpgMina Carlson-Bredberg
Swedish, 1857–1943

Cassatt.jpgMary Cassatt
American, 1844–1926






Marie Cazin
French, 1844–1924

 

Churberg.jpgFanny Churberg
Finnish, 1845–1892

Danielson-Gambogi.jpgElin Danielson-Gambogi
Finnish, 1861–1919






Julie Delance-Feurgard
French, 1859–1892

 

Gonzales.jpgEva Gonzalès
French, 1849–1883

Kielland.jpg
Kitty Kielland
Norwegian, 1843–1914

Klumpke.jpg
Anna Klumpke
American, 1856–1942

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Emma Löwstädt-Chadwick
Swedish, 1855–1932

Modersohn-Becker.jpg
Paula Modersohn-Becker
German, 1876–1907

Morisot.jpg
Berthe Morisot
French, 1841–1895

Norregaard.jpg
Asta Nørregaard
Norwegian, 1853–1933

Nourse.jpg
Elizabeth Nourse
American, 1859–1938

Pauli.jpg
Hanna (Hirsch) Pauli
Swedish, 1864–1940
Perry.jpg
Lilla Cabot Perry
American, 1848–1933

Petiet.jpg
Marie Petiet
French, 1854–1893

Pontillon.jpg
Edma (Morisot) Pontillon
French, 1839–1921

Stokes.jpg
Marianne Stokes
British, 1855–1927

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Helene Schjerfbeck
Finnish, 1862–1946







Annie Stebler-Hopf
Swiss, 1861–1918

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Ellen Thesleff
Finnish, 1869–1954